Out of Africa
It is common knowledge today that the human race evolved in Africa, and that the first human civilizations were in Africa as well. In this section, we will take a close look at the process of evolution that led to all of us being what we are today – modern humans. We will also look at the first mass migrations that led to the geographic and racial divisions that we see in the modern world. You might be surprised to find out that our story begins with “Adam” and “Eve”.
As of this writing, there are 6,775,235,741 human beings on the planet, and scientists believe that all of us come from an original set of parents that had most of our genetic qualities. These findings support the teachings of Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity.
Geneticists back this up, as well. All men can trace their ancestry to a Y-Chromosomal “Adam”. In an article written in Science Magazine, author Ann Gibbons writes “geneticists found that characteristic DNA sequences called markers on the Y (male) chromosome in a huge sample of men in Asia and Oceania could be traced to forefathers who lived in Africa anywhere from 35,000 to 89,000 years ago. Two other groups studying Y chromosome markers have come to a similar conclusion. Together with a variety of studies showing that mitochondrial DNA is of recent African origins, anthropologists now have two strong lines of evidence in favor of the ‘Out of Africa’ model… “
The conclusion here is that if the scientific evidence is true, and monogenism – the belief that all human beings are the descendants from an original human couple, created by God in a pure form and appearance that corrupted as humans reproduced and spread over the globe – is true, then the parents of all human kind had to be Black.
The original man is the Black man.
But that leads us to a problem; if modern humans all came from the same Y-Chromosomal Adam, then how do you explain the difference between the races?
The answer to this question can be found in studying the first and second major migrations of human-kind out of Africa and the evolutionary processes that took place once they reached their perspective homelands.
The First Migration
The children of the first “Adam and Eve” began to reproduce, spread all over the African continent and migrate into the rest of the world. Scientists classify these first “humans” as Homo Erectus who, while not anatomically or behaviorally comparable to modern day humans, did possess enough intelligence to hunt systematically, make tools, control fire, and build complex shelters – and therefore can be called human.
As these early men and women spread out, there were at least two major migrations out of Africa. In the first migration, Homo Erectus left Africa and travelled north into present day Europe and as far away as China and the Javanese Islands at the end of the Pleistocene era (from 1.8 to 1.3 million years ago). The Pleistocene era was marked by several Ice ages, known as glaciations, which caused ice sheets and glaciers to expand and cover more of the Earth’s surface. So between the first and second migrations out of Africa, one of these periods may have caused those H. Erectus that had moved into Europe to be locked in a cold environment, and may have stopped those Original men living in Africa from continuing to move out of the continent and into the colder northern areas. The H. Erectus that had moved east were also forced to settle and remain in middle and Southern Asia, since the areas that we know as Russia and Mongolia may have been too cold for them to continue their travel north. It would be almost a million years before another mass migration out of Africa.
During the span of nearly 1 million years between the two migrations, evolution didn’t stop – it kicked into high gear. Those species of H. Erectus that remained in Africa continued to evolve both physically and intellectually into modern men and women (Homo Sapien Sapiens). Those migrants that settled in Europe remained isolated in their frozen lair and continued to evolve from H. Erectus into a species called Homo Heidelbergensis (which lived from about 800,000 to about 300,000 years ago), and finally into Homo Neanderthalensis (aka Neanderthals, which lived from 400,000 to about 30,000 years ago). The H. Erectus migrants that continued to travel East settled in modern day India and Asia and stayed relatively the same until the second migration out of Africa (more on that later).
Some scientists and individuals have tried to debate the fact that modern, intelligent humans evolved in Africa while the rest of the worlds humans lived lives close to those of animals. However, fossil records have shown that not only did the first anatomical and behavioral man evolve in Africa, but those men and women continued to grow into the intelligent modern humans in existence today. These same men would continue to evolve intellectually, producing wondrous works and mastering mathematics, metallurgy, and social organization. Again, these are more than just claims or theories. The fossil remains of modern Homo sapiens dating back about 160,000 years have been found only on the continent of Africa, along with all the signs of civilization that they left behind. These signs include the oldest human site with evidence of symbolic culture and sophisticated tools in a South African cave that dates back to 170,000 years ago.
Additionally, in May 2010, scientist Richard Greene along with other members of the Neanderthal Genome Analysis Consortium published A Draft Sequence of the Neandertal Genome in Science Magazine. After mapping, sequencing, and comparing the DNA of Neandrethals to modern DNA samples from whites, Asians, and Black Africans, it was shown that whites and Asians possess between 1% and 4% Neanderthal DNA and that today’s sub-Saharan Africans have ZERO Neanderthal DNA.
In basic terms, in order for Black DNA to have Neanderthal traces, there had to have been contact and interbreeding between the species. There was none, since the descendants of modern whites had left the African continent long before modern H. Sapien Sapiens had.
The conclusion that we can intelligently make is that not only are we Black men and women different from other peoples of the world based on our skin color, we are quite possibly a different species altogether!
The difference in races is a matter of species, not skin color!
The Second Migration, The First Revolution
The second migration –this time of modern anatomical and behavioral human beings – began from around 50,000 years ago and continued until after 20,000 years ago. The Original men and women - fully evolved into modern Homo Sapien Sapiens – coming out of Africa would have no doubt come into contact with, mated with, and influenced the primitive Neanderthals of the north (jump starting their evolution and giving rise to white skinned Cro-Magnon men in Europe by about 35,000 years ago), as well as coming into contact with Homo Erectus in India and South Asia by 34,000 years ago (completing their evolution into Homo Sapien Sapiens as well) and pushing human migration across the Bearing Straight between present-day Russia and Alaska and into the Americas by 15,000 years ago.
The second migration was the direct result of two factors: climate change – the melting of glacial ice that allowed for easier mobility- and a sudden, dramatic burst of intelligence amongst our ancestors in Africa that changed their behavior from what it was (primitive) into what it is today. Scientists call this evolution into behavioral modernity the Upper Paleolithic Revolution or the Great Leap Forward
In his groundbreaking book, Pulitzer Prize winning author Jared Diamond suggests the following:
“Human history at last took off around 50,000 years ago, at the time of what I have termed our Great Leap Forward. The earliest definite signs of that leap come from East African sites with standardized stone tools and the first preserve jewelry (ostrich shell beads), Similar developments soon appear in the Near East and in southern Europe, then (some 40,000 years ago) in southwest Europe, where abundant artifacts are associated with fully modern skeletons of people termed Cro-Magnons.” (Diamond, 1999)
Some believe that the Great Leap Forward was the result of a genetic mutation in the brain of African Homo Sapiens that led to the development of language. Others believe that the leap was the result of humans learning to use tools and adapting to a changing environment. Whatever the cause, the Great Leap Forward was the biggest technological leap in human history. All of a sudden, humans became far more sophisticated than they had ever been – complex weapons (bows and arrows, spears, and shaped hand axes)appeared all over Africa, along with fish hooks, traps, jewelry, mathematical artifacts (more on these later), and even writing. Since 1999, Pierre-Jean Texier of the University of Bordeaux, France, and his colleagues have uncovered 270 fragments of shell at the Diepkloof Rock Shelter in the Western Cape, South Africa.  These Ostrich shells show that people living in the area used the same symbols over and over again to represent the same objects or ideas.
Artwork became far more sophisticated as well. For example, the “Linton Panel” shown below is one of the most significant pieces of Rock art found in South Africa and dates to about 26,000 years ago.
During this period, the first spiritual systems came into being, evident in the fact that men started to bury their dead, and systems of trade and barter also developed. Scientists still can’t figure out how or why the Original man developed so quickly. It remains one of science’s greatest mysteries, and the first real revolution in mankind’s story – and it happened over 50,000 years ago!
The First Civilizations
Mankind’s first civilizations were born in Africa, supported by hundreds of thousands of years of knowledge and evolution. The Original men and women began to settle into permanent territories while the rest of mankind spread out across the globe – a period during which Cro-Magnon (white) men had still not conceptualized the ideals of living together harmoniously with themselves and other species.
Settlements appeared in East Africa, in the area now known as Congo, where artifacts as old as 20,000 years have been found. These artifacts included the Ishango Bone, the worlds first abacus, which revealed a culture that had a far deeper understanding of mathematics than any other on the planet at that time. Some believe the three columns of notches on the bone imply that it was used to construct a numeral system. Elsewhere in Africa, the San people settled the area known as Namibia 20-26,000years ago, and they are still there to this very day. The San are notable in that they are the creators of human-kind’s oldest ritual. According to findings by National Geographic, “Africa’s San people may have used a remote cave for ceremonies of python worship as much as 70,000 years ago—30,000 years earlier than the oldest previously known human rites—the team says.” Their published report goes on to say, “Until recently most anthropologists believed that “modern” human behavior requiring symbolic thought did not originate until 40,000 or 50,000 years ago—around the same time that early humans first migrated out of Africa. The archaeological record, particularly in Europe, suggests an explosive proliferation of such behavior about 45,000 years ago. [But] Henshilwood’s team found specialized bone tools and engraved red ocher in South Africa’s Blombos Cave and dated them to 70,000 years ago, suggesting that the humans who left Africa might have already exhibited “modern” behaviors.”
African peoples flourished all along the Nile, Niger, and Congo Rivers, supported by an abundance of food produced from knowledge of agriculture and domestication. They began to build walls built with huge limestone boulders, roughly fitted together without the use of mortar to mark the boundaries of their villages. This technique, known as Cyclopean masonry, was the same technology that would later be used to build the pyramids. Many of these African civilizations charted and travelled by the stars, and built their societies around concepts of the village as an extended family and the common heritage of the land and its resources. They knew that Sirius was a three-star system were well aware, thousands of years before Europeans, that the earth rotated around the Sun.
It will become very important as we build on this discussion to understand that for hundreds and thousands of years, the Original people saw the village as an extension of the family and its family as a part of the village. As villages grew into nations, this concept of the village as the family never went away. It is more than a mental concept – its biologically imprinted. Japanese can identify other Japanese by one look. So can Chinese, Vietnamese, Khoi-san, Ethiopian, Irishmen, Aleutian peoples, and Pygmys. Today, some of these have become political labels but all these labels have their root in the concept of the village as the family. All red-headed Irishmen have common genetic ancestors (up to 46 percent of the Irish population carries the recessive red-head gene), so while the label of “Irish” denotes a land marked by a political boundary, for two red-heads, no political labels are needed to tell them they are related.
So it is with Blacks all over the world today. “We are Moors!”, “We are Kemetians!”, “We are Hebrew Israelites!”, and “We are the people of Islam!” are all proclaimed by various groups. But those are labels that political and religious organizations have tried to force on the lost tribe of Blacks in America, but ultimately these are just labels that are either true, but unimportant, or contingent upon ones acceptance of a belief system like Islam or Judaism. I call us the “lost tribe” because all Blacks in America cannot trace our common ancestry. We know we came from Africa, but that’s about it. We know that we look different from the indigenous people of Africa in very small ways, and so we are not “pure” Africans – our blood has been polluted by centuries of rape and interracial breeding. We also know that we don’t share the same values as our African ancestry, since we have had to change our ways to survive in the hell that is North America. But we do know that we all have a common ancestry in Africa, and that we Blacks here in America are a family – we are all of the same African seed, planted in alien soil. By embracing this fact, and resisting the temptation to separate ourselves using religious or political labels, we will be able to realize the concept of the village as the family.
But I digress. We will come back to this subject of identity in later chapters.
To conclude, long before Whites were able to record history, the Original Black Man was already busy mastering mathematics, metallurgy, arts and crafts, farming, tooling, casting, and construction on a grand scale. The following is a brief overview of some of Africa’s greatest original empires. It is probable that many more great and wonderful kingdoms existed and whose evidence has either not been discovered yet or was destroyed by invading whites.
Until we coordinate independent research expeditions into Sub-Saharan Africa to discover these lost kingdoms ourselves, we may never truly know of the magnificent accomplishments of the Original peoples, but the lands of the Bantu Peoples, Kemet, Punt, Great Zimbabwe, Kush, and Nubia all give us clear glimpses into what was.
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 (Source: World Bank, 2011)
 Science Magazine 11 May 2001: Vol. 292 no. 5519 pp. 1051-1052 DOI: 10.1126/science.292.5519.1051b
 (Stanford Edu , 2000)
 Czarnetzki, A (2003). “Palaeopathological and variant conditions of the Homo heidelbergensis type specimen (Mauer, Germany)”. Journal of Human Evolution 44: 479. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00029-0. PMID 12727464.
 Indiana University (March 27, 2006). “Scientists discover hominid cranium in Ethiopia”. Press release. Retrieved 2006-11-26.
 Press Release, UC Berkley, Robert Sanders | 11 June 2003
 Analysis of mtDNA dates the immigration of Homo sapiens to South Asia to 70,000 to 50,000 years ago. An analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups found one man in a village west of Madurai to be a direct descendant of these migrators.
 Rudman, Peter Strom (20007). How Mathematics Happened: The First 50,000 Years.